Kernerman Dictionary News • Number 12 • July 2004

GLOSSARY

Historical terms

Amora pl. Amora'im אמוראים
a sage of the Talmudic period (3rd-5th centuries CE); hence Amoraic.

barayta
(more commonly baraita) pl. baraytot ברייתא
a Talmudic quotation from a Tannaitic source outside the Mishnah; in a wider sense: any piece of Tannaitic material not incoporated in the Mishnah.

Barayta di-Melekhet ha-Mishkan  ברייתא דמלאכת המשכן (barayta)
“On the Building of the Tabernacle”.

Book of Ben Sira (The)
ספר בן סירא
a book of the Apocrypha; composed by Shim'on ben Jeshua ben 'El'azar ben Sira (2nd century BCE); a.k.a. The Wisdom of Ben Sirach, Ecclesiasticus, etc.

Gaon pl. Geonim גאונים
a post-Talmudic sage, mainly in Babylonia (6th-11th centuries CE); hence Geonic.

Haskalah
השכלה
the Jewish ‘Enlightenment’ movement in Europe (c. 1770s-1880s) that promoted the adoption of secular European culture.

Megillat 'Ahima'az
מגילת אחימעץ
The Scroll of 'Aħima'az; originally: Sefer Yuħasin ספר יוחסין (The Book of Genealogy); composed in Italy by 'Aħima'az ben Palti'el (11th century CE).

Midrash מדרש
a legal and legendary commentary on the Bible, often characterized by non-literal interpretation; also: an anthology of pieces of this; hence Midrashic.

Mishnah
משנה
the collection of oral law compiled by Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi (beginning of the 3rd century CE); also: a single paragraph of this; hence Mishnaic.

Talmud
תלמוד
a compilation of the Mishnah and its Amoraic commentary (Gemara גמרא); there are the Jerusalem (or Palestinian) Talmud (beginning of the 5th century CE) and the more authoritative Babylonian Talmud (end of the 5th century CE); hence Talmudic.

Tanna
pl. Tanna'im תנאים
a sage of the Mishnaic period (1st-2nd centuries CE); hence Tannaitic.

Tosefta
תוספתא
a compilation of baraytot, arranged according to the order of the Mishnah (end of the 3rd century CE).


Linguistic terms

millon מילון
a dictionary; derived from  milla מילה (a word); said to be the first new word introduced into modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda (1880).

neta נטע
a stem.

niqqud
ניקוד
(diacritical) vowel points, vowel marks.

shoresh
שורש
a root; a morpheme that consists of a sequence of (usually) three consonants and carries the basic meaning of a word.

teva
pl. tevot תיבות
a word token.

 

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